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In Medias Res

It was not a mutiny in the old-time sense, of course, with flashing of cutlasses, a captain in chains,and desperate sailors turning outlaws. After all, it happened in 1944 in the United States Navy, but the court of inquiry recommended trial for mutiny, and the episode became known as “the Caine mutiny” throughout the service.

The story begins with Willie Keith because the event turned on his personality as the massive door of a vault turns on a small jewel bearing.  Caine’s Mutiny by Hernan Wouk.

These are the opening lines for the 1951, Pulitzer Prize novel, which starts the story at the court martial; whereas, the 1954 movie version begins with the 2nd Lt. Willie Keith being assigned to the Caine ship.  The screenplay builds the characters and the causes for the mutiny.  The book novel is a good example of In Medias Res.

Today, I will introduce, “In Medias Res,” or learning how to begin the story in the middle where there is an action or dramatic scene that captures, engages, and motivates your listener to want more.  In Medias Res creates questions.  Questions like, ‘What happened before this?’  or ‘What caused this to happen?’  or ‘Who is he?’  These questions create engagement and capture the audience’s attention.

odyssey-homer

cumbelineIn Medias Res is a well establish style of storytelling.  For example, Homer’s Odysseus’ journey already is at the end when the story begins, what happens after this are flashbacks to different points of time, building the story, the characters, and answering the ‘Why’ questions.   William Shakespeare also used this format in one of his plays called, “Cymbeline.”

There are three good reasons for considering the use of In Medias Res.  The first has an advantage of focusing attention to the high point of the story.  A good analogy is on how movie trailers are designed.  They tend to place the audience right into the middle of the action to entice and motivate future ticket sales.  In storytelling, placing the audience in the middle of the action or dramatic scene has advantages.

The second reason gives you an opportunity to seize the attention of your audience.  But what is meant by attention?  The attention here means to engage or to invite a listener along the journey.

The third and what I think is the most important point is it creates questions immediately.  If the next turn on the road can be anticipated there isn’t much suspense.  Suspense comes from not knowing what will happen next.  The middle initiates the action, the beginning explains how we got there, and the end, which we are not sure, still lies around the bend unknown.

First-World-War-so_2786176bOPENING SCENE:   The soldier is writing into his diary his last thoughts before the final battle, he then stops to reflect on his earlier entries as we journey back in time through his memory.  Suddenly, we’re back, the battle begins.  How will it end?   Will the soldier survive? We don’t know. That’s the advantage of In Medias Res.

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The Nested-Loop

In my junior high years, I loved collecting, trading and reading comics.  As kids, we brought our comics to school where all kinds of deals were made for the right story.  But, it was in my last year of junior high when my cousin Joel visited me with a special gift—a book.  He told me that as much as comics were fun to read he thought it was time for me to expand my vocabulary and world while reading science fiction.

s-l640My first book from him, “I, Robot,” a 1950 first edition.  This series was made up of nine stories which I savored every evening.  So popular was Isaac Asimov’s robot stories I continued reading them to Asimov’s passing.  I still have that original “I, Robot” book in my collection.

In more modern times, I have enjoyed stories from James Clavell, Michael Crichton, and Dan Brown.  These authors have a genius for weaving a network of stories into one complete story.  Nested-loop stories are the second classical genres I will be sharing with you today.

I saw Julie Heffernan’s artwork called, “The Scout III” (above) and asked permission to include it in this blog.  She asked me what I saw?  I told her, it reminded me of a storyteller who is creating a nested loop of stories within stories.  She agreed and granted me permission to display her artwork—which I’m most grateful for.

Speakers who perform nested-loop stories, like Simon Sinek’s Ted Talk, have the ability to explain a process while inspiring an audience.  The use of analogies and metaphors are also key in stimulating visual imagery for better understanding and comprehension.  In the end, the authors impart not only knowledge but wisdom, which the listener can pass on to others.  Check out James Burke’s, The Day the Universe Changed, and Connections.”

The nested-loop works like this.  You place your most important story (thought, concept, or idea) in the center and use stories at the beginning to draw your listener in.  The last story finishes the first story and ties in the center story into one neat package.

maxresdefaultWe find a good analogy of a nested-loop in the story of the “Godfather II.”  The story opens with young Vito Corieone witnessing the murder of his father, mother, and brother.  The center of the story covers the boy’s growth into manhood, where he becomes prosperous as both a businessman and a godfather. It ends with the beginning of the story as Vito returns to Sicily to take revenge on his family’s murderer.

stan-lee5Now it’s time for me to end this article, but I need to end it like a nested-loop, somehow bringing the beginning topic of comics through the middle and tying it at the end.  How?  How about—Stan Lee!

Stan Lee is known as the godfather of comics.   Stan Lee’s stories have moved from comics to television, to the silver screen; from movies to the game industry, now to online. Now that’s a real 3D nested-loop!

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Hero’s Journey

Human stories began about 200,000 years ago, before the technology of writing was invented, stories were told and passed down orally.  The oldest recorded written story came out of Mesopotamia.   It was the Epic of Gilgamesh.  The classification of this story is called, “The Hero’s Journey.”

Epic-of-Gilgamesh

 

There are eight classical story themes and the ‘Hero’s Journey,’ is one of the most popular and oldest of all.  The oldest story, “The Epic of Gilgamesh,” was written a little over 4,000 years ago on cuneiform tablets and was taken from oral stories that had been passed down for generations.  Gilgamesh has all the hero action and suspense as in our modern-day stories.

Modern-day stories of a similar hero can be found in: George Baily from ‘It’s a wonderful life’ to Katniss Everdeen in ‘The Hunger Games.’  The hero can be male or female, young or old, rich or poor.  Our character seeks adventures only to find the real story is about discovering his weaknesses and his inner strength.

In the end, we admire the hero for overcoming the obstacles and challenges because our character generally overcome successfully their own physical limitation or disadvantages.  Ben Okri said, “The fact of storytelling hints at a fundamental human unease, hints at human imperfection.  Where there is perfection there is no story to tell.”  Harry Potter may be a wizard, but he was still a young boy.  The story is set in a David and Goliath format where a child character is challenged to face adult wizards and mystical creatures.

Every hero finds a mentor-friend along his path’s journey.  Gilgamesh, 6000 years ago, walked with Enkidu, Luke Skywalker finds Obiwan Kenobi, and even Marty McFly has Doc.  In all cases, they somehow lose their mentor along the way.  At the most crucial point our character must face alone his fears and doubts when the challenge, generally a life-death situation, comes upon him.

These types of stories demonstrate the benefits of taking the risks.  Risks can range from losing a kingdom to losing one’s life.  Behind these types of stories there are important characteristics in what makes human successes and human failures.  If the story is well presented, the listener becomes involved emotionally and psychologically drawing from experiences their own defeat and failures.

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Yes, stories allow the listener to travel with the hero, continuing to urge him on or to suffer with him.  The Hero’s Journey is about sharing emotions too!   Our hero may lose a battle but learns how to turn his weakness into the weapon he needs, like in, “The Last Samurai,” where the hero, Capt. Nathan Algren learns a new philosophy—Bushido, the way of the warrior.  This moves this character from a defeated drunk to a national hero.

Finally, the Hero’s Journey demonstrates that anyone can achieve newfound wisdom if they are willing to keep an open mind.  In the end, the Hero’s Journey is about a visual journey of emotions leading the listener to accept his weaknesses while discovering his inner strength.

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Finding the Stories

Without material, you have no story.  So, where do you get the material?  Here are some thoughts.

First think about who will be your audience.  If you cater more to a Western Culture, who speak mostly English, then you will need materials and resources that your audience will understand.  Even though you enjoy writings from Eastern philosophies, like Sun Tzu, your Western audience may not get the point of your story.  There is a way around this and we will discuss this more next week.

If your audience is global, then it is even more important to understand what symbols in a multicultural world will best fit the stories you produce.  Lincoln’s repertoire of stories stretched from the Illinois’ back woods to the hustle and bustle of Washington elites.  From politically correct to obscene.  The key was in timing; knowing when and how to use them and what the ROI would be from the punchline.

Like Abraham, you have a lot of personal stories that you have collected over the years.  Telling a story that doesn’t always put you in the best of light can work for you, because that means you are opening trust and building a relationship.  Heck, we’ve all made mistakes, and when someone makes fun of his/her own short comings it can sometimes build a closer relationship with your audience.  This is key for stand-up comedians who tell stories that their audience can relate to.

Lincoln read books.  He created and developed his Strategic Stories from the Bible and other non-fiction books he borrowed or bought.  Books and stories are what made him a great orator.  John Kennedy was another voracious reader, writer and speaker.

 

Mary Bateson said, “The human species thinks in metaphors and learns through stories.”  Metaphors, for the Strategic Storyteller, are the most powerful tools for persuasive arguments.  Metaphors, if done right can engage and motivate your listener towards a specific action.  When you learn how to tell instead of sell, you will in the end, sell even more.

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Reader’s Digest has a host of short and long stories that don’t take much time to read.  Here is one I enjoy.  How would you use this story?

A pastor decided one Saturday to call on a new parishioner.  When he got to the parishioner’s home he saw a car in the driveway.  He knocked and knocked on the door with no one response from within.  So, he took out a small business card and wrote on back, ‘Revelations 3:20’ and stuck it on the door.  It read, “Behold, I stand at the door and knock.  If any man hears my voice, and opens the door, I will come in to him and will dine with him, and he will with me.”

The next day as he was counting the offering, he found a message on his collection card, “Genesis 3:10” It read, “And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked.”

See you Wednesday.

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Making The Connection

In the morning, I enjoy playing a game of Sudoku.  Sudoku is a popular logic puzzle that teaches about patterns and connections.  As I play this game, it tends to focus my mind and open it at the same time.  As I was playing it this morning I started to think about Abraham Lincoln.  Sudoku has a connection to President Lincoln?  Yes, let me explain.

In Sudoku, you start off with a 9 x 9 grid, which is further broken down into 9 smaller grids of 3 x 3.  The game comes partly solved with numbers randomly scattered throughout the larger grid (Fig. 1).  Your job is to find the missing numbers so that each smaller grid contains the numbers 1 through 9, while making sure the larger grid also gets filled with the numbers 1 through 9 horizontally and vertically.  No number can repeat horizontally or diagonally when finished (fig 2.)

Sudoku Fig1                       Sudoku Fig2

Fig 1: New Puzzle                                                             Fig 2: Completed Puzzle

Okay, you say, that’s interesting but what does Sudoku have to do with President Lincoln?  Okay, okay I’m getting to it.  Sudoku is about finding patterns, and like the game of chess there are known patterns that are sometimes discovered as you play though the game.  Once a pattern is established you start to make new connections to solving the puzzle.

Leonardo da Vinci wrote, “To develop a complete mind:  Study the art of science; study the science of Art, learn how to see.  Realize that everything connects to everything else.”

Abraham Lincoln was a master storyteller.  He gathered his stories from his past experiences, from other storytellers, from books, and from the Bible.  There didn’t seem to be a situation where Lincoln didn’t have a story to tell.  He is known for his stories that entertained, but he also excelled in delivering Strategic Stories that could change the direction of a river.

There are several examples on how Lincoln deflated his opponent’s arguments or diffused some opponents attack with just a quick story.  He used his stories to win arguments, votes, and to persuade changes that still affect us to this day.  Lincoln realized that when confronted with a daunting situation he would use a story to make a connection that would persuade his argument.

Newton Bateman, an educator and close friend of Lincoln, recalled that Mr. Lincoln “knew how to select and arrange the material, what to put in the fore-ground, what in the background, what to set up as the central figure, and how to make all converge towards the final climax. He knew how to whet curiosity just enough to hold the attention of all to the end, without giving the least clue as to the nature of the final explosion; and he especially excelled in that supreme generalship which enables an accomplished story-teller to keep his reserves out of sight till the opportune moment…”

Want to increase your visibility, leads, and profits?  Then tune in this week as I break down Lincoln’s storytelling patterns that will make successful connections for your business ventures.

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Choosing the Right Words

Two thousand years ago, Aristotle, identified a pattern and created a formula or template for what he felt was the perfect story.  He broke down storytelling into three distinct parts:

  1. Ethos is Greek for Credibility, which constitutes 30%.
  2. Pathos is Greek for emotions, which constitutes 50%
  3. Logos is Greek for logic, which constitutes 20%.

Today, we cover the topic of logic; however, Aristotle’s definition of logic is quite different from today’s definition.  Logic originally meant: “The Word” or “what is spoken.”  The choice of words in a story are very important, it is part of the reasoning support that creates a relationship.

As an Educator\Director, I’m often asked why Shakespeare’s language is so hard to understand?  To answer that I must remind people that the stories are 500 years old.  Words over the centuries have changed meaning.  Shakespeare’s words are well chosen and logical, but the presentation has changed from descriptive words to today’s short sound bites.

According to Aristotle, words identifying emotions are 50% of a strategic story.  In lab brainimagingexperiments speakers and listeners have their brain activity monitored.  When a speaker tells a story regarding an emotional event, his brain lights up parts of the brain (sensory, motor, memory, emotions, etc.)   Interesting enough the brains of the subjects listening likewise light up in tandem meaning—everyone is on the same page!

If the dopamine and Oxytocin are activated (see The Perfect Story) then credibility can be established, because there is trust and mutual emotional understanding.

This brings us now to the logic.  The words chosen are only part of storytelling.  Words must be chosen carefully to convey the emotional state the speaker is trying to establish.  How words are also spoken can be more important than the word itself.  This I learned while taking professional classes in Shakespeare language delivery.

Body language, hand gestures, facial expressions, voice tones and presentation are all part of the Strategic Storytelling system.  As we journey together, I will be adding and teaching more on this.  I’ve also been asked to create videos, which I’m in progress doing now.

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Just a week ago, Super Bowl 51, played out, and like most people watching the game they were also watching the commercials.  Images, words, and music are well chosen since these commercials cost their sponsors $5 million dollars for 30 seconds.  The one commercial that received an immediate negative response was from the Dodge commercial using in its background the words of Dr. Martin Luther King.  Twitter went hot as negative reaction to using Dr. Kings words to sell a car.  The words were good, the emotion established, but establishing the relationship—well let’s just say the Chrysler marketing team fumbled on their credibility, which is 30% of their story.

I write my blog with a maximum of 500 words.  This would take about 3.5 minutes to read out loud.  I am also interested to connect with you to answer your questions on how to develop your own Strategic Story presentation.

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The Story That Took A City

Yesterday, we discussed how emotions affect the human brain through storytelling.  Today, I will cover the second principle of Aristotle’s storytelling principles—Credibility.  Credibility means: The quality of being trusted and believed in.  According to Aristotle this attribute composed 20% of the presentation.

I could safely say; most people have heard about the Trojan War.  The Greek warrior hero, Achilles, and the Trojan champion, Hector.  The Trojan war lasted 10 years, about the same amount of time the U.S. was at war with Vietnam.  In both cases, at least according to, “The Post,” the American military knew they weren’t going to win.  The Greeks had the same idea.  They hoped to starve out Troy, but it didn’t work.

Both sides, at the end of ten years, left the enemies shores.  America returned to rebuild.  The Greeks returned to destroy the city and plunder all of Troy’s wealth.  If I ask people how did the Greeks win most will say, “They built a wooden, and the Trojans brought it into their city—and the rest is history.

The what, the wooden horse, and the how, bringing the horse in, are well known, but no one knows the why?  What convinced the Trojans to bring in the horse?  The answer came from one man who used a Strategic Story to convince the Trojans to bring the horse in.  In fact, the man’s name was written into Shakespeare’s plays, he was placed in the 8th level of Hell in Dante’s Inferno, and Niccolò Machiavelli described him in his book, “The Prince.”  Who was he?  A Greek officer named Sinon.

Homer made it clear in his story, “The Iliad and Odyssey,” that Sinon was the real hero.  After ten years of failing to breach the wall, Sinon came upon an idea.  Build the horse, which was a symbol of Troy, and put into its belly 30 soldiers.

Problem #1:  How do we get the horse in?

Problem #2: What if the Trojans burn the wooden horse?

Sinon had a plan.  The Greek ships would leave and leave only him behind, half naked, no weapons.  He would tell a strategic story and get the Trojans to move the great horse into the city.

When the Greeks left, Trojan scouts reported back to palace.  All came out cautiously.  Sinon waited patiently by the horse.  The Trojans approached slowly.  When finally confronted, Sinon told them he had deserted.  He told them that the horse was built to the gods to protect the Greek voyage home.  Sinon went further to tell them to burn the horse because any city protecting the horse would prosper from the gods.

Sinon

 

 

Sinon was tortured and yet held to his story.  Finally convinced he was telling the truth they embraced him and took both him and the horse in.  The emotions established, and now the credibility had been confirmed.

 

 

Even though the story centers on deceit, a fact of war, without Sinon’s credibility Troy wouldn’t have disappeared.  Tomorrow, Logic brings it all together.